Analysis and evaluation of the antimicrobial and anticancer activities of the essential oil isolated from <i>Foeniculum vulgare</i> from Hamedan, Iran

<p>In this study, biological properties of the essential oil isolated from seeds of <i>Foeniculum vulgare</i> (<i>F. vulgare</i>) were evaluated. GC-MS analysis revealed Trans-Anethole (80.63%), L-Fenchone (11.57%), Estragole (3.67%) and Limonene (2.68%) were the major compounds of the essential oil. Antibacterial activity of the essential oil against nine Gram-positive and Gram-negative strains was studied using disc diffusion and micro-well dilution assays. Essential oil exhibited the antibacterial activity against three Gram-negative strains of <i>Pseudomonas aeruginosa</i>, <i>Escherichia coli</i>, and <i>Shigella dysenteriae</i>. The preliminary study on toxicity of seed oil was performed using Brine Shrimp lethality test (BSLT). Results indicated the high toxicity effect of essential oil (LC50 = 10 μg/mL). <i>In vitro</i> anticancer activity of seed oil was investigated against human breast cancer (MDA-Mb) and cervical epithelioid carcinoma (Hela) cell lines by MTT assay. Results showed the seed oil behave as a very potent anticancer agent with IC50 of lower than 10 μg/mL in both cases.</p>