Analysis of the oxidative damage of DNA, RNA, and their metabolites induced by hyperglycemia and related nephropathy in Sprague Dawley rats

We used a sensitive and accurate method based on isotope dilution high-performance liquid chromatography–triple quadrupole mass spectrometry (ID-LC-MS/MS) to determine the levels of 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2-deoxyguanosine (8-oxo-dGsn) and 8-oxo-7,8-dihydroguanosin (8-oxo-Gsn) in various tissue specimens, plasma, and urine of hyperglycemic Sprague Dawley rats induced by streptozotocin (STZ). The oxidative DNA and RNA damages were observed in various organs and the amounts of 8-oxo-dGsn and 8-oxo-Gsn derived from DNA and RNA were increased with hyperglycemic status. In contrast to the results of the nucleic acid samples derived from tissues, the levels of 8-oxo-Gsn in urine and plasma were significantly higher compared with that of 8-oxo-dGsn, which most likely reflected the RNA damage that occurs more frequently compared with DNA damage. For the oxidative stress induced by hyperglycemia, 8-oxo-Gsn in urine may be a sensitive biomarker on the basis of the results in urine, plasma, and tissues. In addition, high levels of urinary 8-oxo-Gsn were observed before diabetic microvascular complications. Based on that the 8-oxo-dGsn was associated with diabetic nephropathy and RNA was more vulnerable to oxidative stress compared with DNA. We also propose that 8-oxo-Gsn is correlated with diabetic nephropathy and that 8-oxo-Gsn in urine could be a useful and sensitive marker of diabetic nephropathy.