Apparatus-dependent sol-gel synthesis of TiO2 nanoparticles for dye-sensitized solar cells

Synthesis of titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2 NPs) has been done by sol-gel-hydrothermal colloidal route in two different apparatus; one being simple stainless steel (named as TiO2-B) and other being at constant temperature and pressure autoclave (named as TiO2-W). These TiO2 NPs were investigated by various characterization techniques such as scanning electron microscope (SEM), X-ray diffractometer (XRD), and photoluminescence spectrophotometer. Also, it was observed that the quality of the synthesized TiO2-W NPs is comparable with the commercial TiO2 NPs (TiO2-C), whereas the cost of synthesis is almost reduced to half. The synthesized TiO2 NPs are used as the photoanode in dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC). DSSC with TiO2-W showed better power conversion efficiency as compared to DSSC with TiO2-B.