Applicability of Ozone and Biological Activated Carbon for Potable Reuse
The Upper San Gabriel Valley Municipal Water District in California is considering groundwater replenishment as a potential strategy to augment its potable water supply. This case study demonstrates the broad applicability of ozone and biological activated carbon (BAC) for such potable reuse systems based on recently developed criteria and models for bulk organics, trace organic contaminants, disinfection byproducts, and cost. Using an advanced treatment train composed of ozone (ozone to total organic carbon ratio of 1.0) and BAC (empty bed contact time of 20 min), a 10 million gallon per day potable reuse facility can achieve savings of $25–$51 million in capital costs, $2–$4 million per year in operations and maintenance costs, and 4–8 GWh per year in energy consumption in comparison to alternative treatment trains with reverse osmosis. This ozone-based treatment train is also capable of achieving public health criteria recently developed by the California Department of Public Health and the National Water Research Institute for potable reuse applications.