Associations among Socioeconomic Factors, Lag Time, and High-Risk Histopathologic Features in Eyes Primarily Enucleated for Retinoblastoma
Purpose/Aim: To determine the associations among socioeconomic factors, delay in management, and high-risk histopathologic features in eyes primarily enucleated for retinoblastoma.
Materials and Methods: A single-site survey was conducted from January 2016 through January 2018. Eyes primarily enucleated for unilateral retinoblastoma were reviewed for the presence of high-risk histopathologic features. Information on clinical characteristics, socioeconomic factors, and lag time were collected during hospitalization.
Results: Of the 138 children analyzed, 60 (43.5%) carried high-risk histopathologic features. Compared to children with a standard risk, those with a high risk had a longer median lag time before treatment (21.5 vs 15.0 days, P = .007), but their overall lag time (54.0 vs 50.0 days, P = .062) and delay in the initial visit (7.0 vs 10.0 days, P = .782) were comparable. Logistic regression analysis showed that children with a lag time ≥ 30 days were at a significantly higher risk of extraocular invasion (odds ratio [OR] = 2.38 and 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.08–5.37 for treatment delay; OR = 2.12 and 95% CI = 1.01–4.62 for overall delay). Neither high-risk histopathologic features nor lag time was associated with any demographic or major socioeconomic factors, including sex, age at diagnosis or enucleation, ethnicity, household income, parents’ education level, medical insurance coverage, and left-behind status.
Conclusions: For children with advanced unilateral retinoblastoma, there is no statistical difference in overall lag time between standard and high-risk groups. Major socioeconomic parameters have little impact on the delay and histopathologic outcomes, thus implying that children with varied socioeconomic status may be at a similar risk of advanced tumor invasion.