Biofilm inhibition and anti-quorum sensing activity of phytosynthesized silver nanoparticles against the nosocomial pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa

Quorum sensing (QS), the communication signaling network, regulates biofilm formation and several virulence factors in Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1, a nosocomial opportunistic pathogen. QS is considered to be a challenging target for compounds antagonistic to virulent factors. Biologically synthesized silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) are reported as anti-QS and anti-biofilm drugs against bacterial infections. The present study reports on the synthesis and characterization of Piper betle (Pb) mediated AgNPs (Pb-AgNPs). The anti-QS activity of Pb-AgNPs against Chromobacterium violaceum and the potential effect of Pb-AgNPs on QS-regulated phenotypes in PAO1 were studied. FTIR analysis exhibited that Pb-AgNPs had been capped by phytochemical constituents of Pb. Eugenol is one of the active phenolic phytochemicals in Pb leaves, therefore molecular docking of eugenol-conjugated AgNPs on QS regulator proteins (LasR, LasI and MvfR) was performed. Eugenol-conjugated AgNPs showed considerable binding interactions with QS-associated proteins. These results provide novel insights into the development of phytochemically conjugated nanoparticles as promising anti-infective candidates.