Brominated, chlorinated and mixed brominated/chlorinated persistent organic pollutants in European eels (Anquilla anquilla) from Latvian lakes

Fifty-eight European eel (Anquilla anquilla) specimens collected from five Latvian lakes were investigated for six groups of persistent organic pollutants (POPs), including polychlorinated, polybrominated and mixed bromo-chloro dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/DFs, PBDD/DFs and PXDD/DFs), polychlorinated and mixed bromo-chloro biphenyls (PCBs and PXBs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs). PCDD/DFs and PCBs were found to occur in the range 0.85–15.8 pg Total-WHO2005-TEQ g−1 f.w., and concentrations in most of the samples were below the maximum levels specified in European Commission Regulation (EU) No. 1259/2011. The summed concentrations of 27 PBDEs (∑PBDE) and 16 non-dioxin-like PCBs (∑NDL-PCB) were in the ranges of 0.28–26.7 and 6.37–320 ng g−1 f.w., respectively. PBDD/DFs, PXDD/DFs and PXBs show average upper-bound concentrations of 0.05, 0.06 and 0.01 pg TEQ f.w. and collectively contributed 3.4% to the sum TEQ of dioxin-like compounds. The highest contaminant concentrations were measured in samples from lakes near the Baltic Sea and the industrialised area near Riga (Liepajas and Kisezers lakes). A correlation of POP concentration with the length of collected specimens was observed.