Catalyst-coated cement beads for the degradation and mineralization of fungicide carbendazim using laboratory and pilot-scale reactor: catalyst stability analysis

The fixed-bed photocatalytic degradation of fungicide carbendazim using catalyst-coated spherical cement beads has been investigated. Thirty beads with optimum size 13 mm along with 0.3 gL−1 H2O2 with an initial concentration of carbendazim of 10 mgL−1 were the optimized conditions for better degradation. The reduction in COD and total organic carbon along with the generation of nitrite and nitrate ions under the optimized conditions confirms the complete mineralization of compound. The suggested degradation pathway for carbendazim has also been proposed as intermediates formed during photodegradation were analyzed through gas chromatography–mass spectrometry. The coated cement beads were found to be durable even after 30 cycles as confirmed by scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive spectroscopy analysis. Scale-up trails have also been carried out in a solar-baffled fixed-bed reactor for the degradation of pollutant to seek the commercial viability of the technique.