Characterization of flavonoid glycosides from rapeseed bee pollen using a combination of chromatography, spectrometry and nuclear magnetic resonance with a step-wise separation strategy

To identify the structures of flavonoid glycosides in bee pollen collected from rapeseed plants (Brassica napus L.), we utilised an approach that combined liquid chromatography–diode array detector–electrospray ionization–mass spectrometry (LC–DAD–ESI–MS) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) technology with a step-wise separation strategy. We identified four constituents of high purity in rape bee pollen samples: (1) quercetin-3-O-β-D-glucosyl-(2→l)-β-glucoside, (2) kaempferol-3, 4′-di-O-β-D-glucoside, (3) 5, 7, 4′-trihydroxy-3′-methoxyflavone-3-O-β-D-sophoroside and (4) kaempferol-3-O-β-D-glucosyl-(2→l)-β-D-glucoside. This study will also provide useful reference standards for qualification and quantification of four flavonoid glycosides in natural products.