Characterization of the Processing Conditions upon Textural Profile Analysis (TPA) Parameters of Processed Cheese Using Near-Infrared Hyperspectral Imaging
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This investigation was undertaken to study the effect of manufactural processing conditions on the textural profile analysis (TPA) parameters and microstructure of processed cheese made by controlling the raw materials, water content, citric acid content, melting temperature, holding time, and emulsifying salts. The effect of manufactural processing conditions on the cheese physical properties was studied and compared. Moreover, hyperspectral images were acquired from the cheese samples. Principal component analysis was performed on the spectra to classify the cheese samples prepared under different processing conditions. A partial least square (PLS) algorithm was used to develop a model for predicting the TPA parameters. To assess the effect of processing conditions on the model performance, a PLS model was developed using the spectra of all of the cheese samples. A high determination correlation was achieved for predicting hardness, gumminess and chewiness with Rcv2 > 0.820 and cohesiveness and springiness with Rcv2 > 0.677. The lowest value of Rcv2 equal to 0.348 was obtained for adhesiveness.