Chemical composition and potentiation of insecticidal and fungicidal activities of Citrus trifoliata L. fruits essential oil against Spodoptera littoralis, Fusarium oxysporum and Fusarium solani via nano-cubosomes

Development of natural nano-based plant-protection formulations represents an emerging phenomenon that has been widely improved for crops protection and for enhancing the efficiency and safety of pesticides. In the present study we isolated the essential oil from the fruits of Citrus trifoliata L. and investigated it using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis. Limonene (78.46%) was the major component followed by β-Myrcene (7.94%) and Caryophyllene (4.20%). Citrus trifoliata essential oil (CTEO) loaded nano-cubosomes were successfully prepared by the emulsification technique. The insecticidal and fungicidal activities of formulated CTEO nano-cubosomes and unformulated CTEO were tested. While both of them exhibited substantial activities, CTEO nano-cubosomes were more effective than unformulated oil. It is the first time to formulate CTEO in nano-cubosomes and examine their insecticidal and fungicidal activities. In light of the current study, CTEO as it is or as nano-cubosomes is recommended as a promising candidate for pest and fungal pathogens control.