Chemical composition, anti-toxoplasma, cytotoxicity, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory potentials of <i>Cola gigantea</i> seed oil

<p><b>Context:</b><i>Cola gigantea</i> A. Chev. (Sterculiaceae) is an important medicinal tropical flora.</p> <p><b>Objective:</b> The seed oil of <i>C. gigantea</i>, an underutilized tropical plant was investigated for its antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-<i>Toxoplasma,</i> and cytotoxicity activities as well as the chemical composition.</p> <p><b>Materials and methods:</b> The physicochemical parameters of the seed oil obtained via Soxhlet extraction was determined while the fatty acid and non-fatty acid component were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The antioxidant activity was evaluated using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and 2,2-azino-bis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS) assays (10–50 µg/mL) while the anti-inflammatory property was determined through Cell Membrane Stabilization assay. The anti-parasite and cytotoxicity activity were evaluated (0–1000 µg/mL) using <i>Toxoplasma gondii</i> and mammalian cell line assays, respectively.</p> <p><b>Results:</b> The oil had fatty acids which ranged from C-12 to C-23 with linoleic (18:2) and palmitic acids (16:0) being dominant. The oil had 89.41% unsaturated fatty acids with sterolic acid, an uncommon acetylenic fatty acid reported for the first time. Non-fatty acids obtained include cholesterol (2.12%), campesterol (14.12%), stigmasterol (34.07%) and β-sitosterol (49.68%). The oil had a significantly (<i>p</i> < 0.05) low scavenging activity against DPPH radicals (IC<sub>50</sub> > 50 µg/mL) compared with ascorbic acid. In contrast, the oil showed better activity against ABTS radicals (IC<sub>50</sub> 44.19 ± 6.27 µg/mL) compared with ascorbic acid or quercetin. Furthermore, the oil showed anti-<i>T. gondii</i> and dose-dependent cytotoxicity in HFF cells with selectivity index (IC<sub>50</sub>/EC<sub>50</sub> < 1).</p> <p><b>Discussion and conclusions:</b> The antioxidant potential of the oil suggests that it may serve as a potential source for various preparations for pharmaceuticals and cosmeceuticals.</p>