Cytotoxic flavonoids from two Lonchocarpus species
A new isoflavone, 4′-prenyloxyvigvexin A (1) and a new pterocarpan, (6aR,11aR)-3,8-dimethoxybitucarpin B (2) were isolated from the leaves of Lonchocarpus bussei and the stem bark of Lonchocarpus eriocalyx, respectively. The extract of L. bussei also gave four known isoflavones, maximaisoflavone H, 7,2′-dimethoxy-3′,4′-methylenedioxyisoflavone, 6,7,3′-trimethoxy-4′,5′-methylenedioxyisoflavone, durmillone; a chalcone, 4-hydroxylonchocarpin; a geranylated phenylpropanol, colenemol; and two known pterocarpans, (6aR,11aR)-maackiain and (6aR,11aR)-edunol. (6aR,11aR)-Edunol was also isolated from the stem bark of L. eriocalyx. The structures of the isolated compounds were elucidated by spectroscopy. The cytotoxicity of the compounds was tested by resazurin assay using drug-sensitive and multidrug-resistant cancer cell lines. Significant antiproliferative effects with IC50 values below 10 μM were observed for the isoflavones 6,7,3′-trimethoxy-4′,5′-methylenedioxyisoflavone and durmillone against leukemia CCRF-CEM cells; for the chalcone, 4-hydroxylonchocarpin and durmillone against its resistant counterpart CEM/ADR5000 cells; as well as for durmillone against the resistant breast adenocarcinoma MDA-MB231/BCRP cells and resistant gliobastoma U87MG.ΔEGFR cells.