Dammarane-type saponins from Gynostemma pentaphyllum and their cytotoxicities

Heat-processed Gynostemma pentaphyllum has shown strong activity against human lung carcinoma A549 cells. In this study, two dammarane-type saponins together with two known compounds were isolated from the ethanol extract of the heat-processed leaves of G. pentaphyllum. They were identified as 2α,3β,12β-trihydroxydammar-20(22),24-diene-3-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (1, namely damulin E), 2α,3β,12β-trihydroxydammar-20,24-diene-3-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (2, namely damulin F), damulin A (3) and damulin B (4), respectively, using NMR and mass spectra. Damulin E and damulin F showed moderate activity against A549, H1299, T24, SH-SY5Y and K562 cell lines in vitro using CCK-8 assay.