Development of methodologies for identification and quantification of hazardous air pollutants from turbine engine emissions
Aircraft turbine engines are a significant source of particulate matter (PM) and gaseous emissions in the vicinity of airports and military installations. Hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) (e.g., formaldehyde, benzene, naphthalene and other compounds) associated with aircraft emissions are an environmental concern both in flight and at ground level. Therefore, effective sampling, identification, and accurate measurement of these trace species are important to assess their environmental impact. This effort evaluates two established ambient air sampling and analysis methods, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Method TO-11A and National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) Method 1501, for potential use to quantify HAPs from aircraft turbine engines. The techniques were used to perform analysis of the exhaust from a T63 turboshaft engine, and were examined using certified gas standards transferred through the heated sampling systems used for engine exhaust gaseous emissions measurements. Test results show that the EPA Method TO-11A (for aldehydes) and NIOSH Method 1501 (for semivolatile hydrocarbons) were effective techniques for the sampling and analysis of most HAPs of interest. Both methods showed reasonable extraction efficiencies of HAP species from the sorbent tubes, with the exception of acrolein, styrene, and phenol, which were not well quantified. Formaldehyde measurements using dinitrophenylhydrazine (DNPH) tubes (EPA method TO-11A) were accurate for gas-phase standards, and compared favorably to measurements using gas-phase Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. In general, these two standard methodologies proved to be suitable techniques for field measurement of turbine engine HAPs within a reasonable (5–10 minutes) sampling period. Details of the tests, the analysis methods, calibration procedures, and results from the gas standards and T63 engine tested using a conventional JP-8 jet fuel are provided.
Implications: HAPs from aviation-related sources are important because of their adverse health and environmental impacts in and around airports and flight lines. Simpler, more convenient techniques to measure the important HAPs, especially aldehydes and volatile organic HAPs, are needed to provide information about their occurrence and assist in the development of engines that emit fewer harmful emissions.