ESCRT-mediated phagophore sealing during mitophagy
Inactivation of the endosomal sorting complex required for transport (ESCRT) machinery has been reported to cause autophagic defects, but the exact functions of ESCRT proteins in macroautophagy/autophagy remain incompletely understood. Using live-cell fluorescence microscopy we found that the filament-forming ESCRT-III subunit CHMP4B was recruited transiently to nascent autophagosomes during starvation-induced autophagy and mitophagy, with residence times of about 1 and 2 min, respectively. Correlative light microscopy and electron tomography revealed CHMP4B recruitment at a late step in mitophagosome formation. The autophagosomal dwell time of CHMP4B was strongly increased by depletion of the regulatory ESCRT-III subunit CHMP2A. Using a novel optogenetic closure assay we observed that depletion of CHMP2A inhibited phagophore sealing during mitophagy. Consistent with this, depletion of CHMP2A and other ESCRT-III subunits inhibited both PRKN/PARKIN-dependent and -independent mitophagy. We conclude that the ESCRT machinery mediates phagophore closure, and that this is essential for mitophagic flux.
Abbreviations: BSA: bovine serum albumin; CHMP: chromatin-modifying protein; CLEM: correlative light and electron microscopy; EGFP: enhanced green fluorescent protein; ESCRT: endosomal sorting complex required for transport; HEPES: 2-[4-(2-hydroxyethyl)piperazin-1-yl]ethanesulfonic acid; HRP: horseradish peroxidase; ILV: intralumenal vesicle; MAP1LC3/LC3: microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3; LOV2: light oxygen voltage 2; MLS: mitochondrial localization sequence; MT-CO2: mitochondrially encoded cytochrome c oxidase II; O+A: oligomycin and antimycin A; PBS: phosphate-buffered saline; PIPES: piperazine-N,N-bis(2-ethanesulfonic acid); PRKN/PARKIN: parkin RBR E3 ubiquitin protein ligase; RAB: RAS-related in brain; SD: standard deviation; SEM: standard error of the mean; TOMM20: TOMM20: translocase of outer mitochondrial membrane 20; VCL: vinculin; VPS4: vacuolar protein sorting protein 4; Zdk1: Zdark 1; TUBG: Tubulin gamma chain