Effectiveness of Bio-Activated Carbon Filtration and Ozonation on Control of Halo Acetic Acids Formation during Chlorination of Ganga River Water at Kanpur, India

Chlorinated water from River Ganga is the main source of drinking water in Kanpur, India. But, this water contains a significant amount of disinfection by-products (DBPs) that include haloacetic acids (HAAs) as a major contributor, which pose a carcinogenic risk on long-term ingestion. Therefore, in order to control HAAs formation, different combinations of ozonation and bio-activated carbon filtration (BAC-filtration) were studied. The results elucidate that slight ozonation followed by BAC-filtration proved effective in reducing (75.8%) HAAs formation and meet the USEPA drinking standards. These findings open a path to explore cost-effective treatment techniques in continuous mode for safe drinking water.