Effects of a lysophosphatidylcholine and a phosphatidylcholine on the morphology of taurocholic acid-based mixed micelles as determined by small-angle X-ray scattering
We previously showed that Caco-2 cell absorption of β-carotene from taurocholic acid (TA)-based mixed micelles differed depending on the composition of the micelles. In this study, the shapes and sizes of TA-based mixed micelles, that is, mixed micelles of TA, 1-oleoyl-rac-glycerol (MG), oleic acid (OLA), and either 1-palmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (MPPC; i.e., a lysophospholipid) or 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (POPC; i.e., a phospholipid) (60:3:1:0.75–12) were determined by using small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS). We found that increasing the ratio of MPPC in mixed micelles of TA, MG, OLA, and MPPC was responsible for the previously observed enhanced β-carotene absorption by Caco-2 cells and changed the micelle shape from core–shell spherical to core–shell ellipsoidal. In contrast, increasing the ratio of POPC in mixed micelles of TA, MG, OLA, and POPC was responsible for the suppressed β-carotene absorption by the cells, changed the micelle shape from core–shell spherical to core–shell ellipsoidal to core–shell cylindrical, and caused a rapid increase in micelle volume. These results will be useful for understanding the mechanisms that mediate β-carotene absorption by cells and for developing technologies to improve the intestinal absorption of lipophilic components of drugs and nutrients.