Effects of dechlorane plus on oxidative stress, inflammatory response, and cell apoptosis in Cyprinus carpio
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The levels of the chlorinated organic compound Dechlorane Plus (DP) are increasing in aquatic ecosystems. To investigate the adverse effects of DP on aquatic animals, common carp (Cyprinus carpio) were subjected to three different DP concentrations (30 μg L−1, 60 μg L−1, and 120 μg L−1) for 1 d, 15 d, and 30 d. Histology and the hepatic and cerebral expression levels of several key antioxidant, detoxification, and apoptotic factors were then examined. Histopathological inspections showed that the liver and brain were severely damaged in carp exposed to 60 μg L−1 and 120 μg L−1 DP. Relative to the controls, the superoxide dismutase and glutathione activity levels and the malondialdehyde content were also changed in livers and brains exposed to DP. Besides, significant alterations in the expression levels of the inflammatory cytokines IL-1β, IL-6, and IL-10 were observed in the livers of carp subjected to DP. Relative to the control, the brains of DP-exposed carp presented with significantly upregulated IL-1β and IL-6 in carp treated with 120 μg L−1 DP for 30 d. The transcription levels of hepatic cyp2b4, cyp1b1, and cyp3a138 were all increased compared with the untreated at all DP exposure concentrations. The aforementioned results suggest that DP exposure perturbs fish metabolism and causes liver injury by inhibiting antioxidant enzyme activity, increasing lipid peroxidation, promoting inflammation, and inducing cell apoptosis. This information and the analytical methodology used to acquire it may form the basis for future ecological risk assessments on DP and related xenobiotics in aquatic animals.