Eocene I-type magmatism in the Eastern Pontides, NE Turkey: insights into magma genesis and magma-tectonic evolution from whole-rock geochemistry, geochronology and isotope systematics

The Eastern Pontides orogenic belt in NE Turkey hosts numerous I-type plutons of Eocene epoch. Here, we report new U–Pb SHRIMP zircon ages and in situ zircon Lu-Hf isotopes along with bulk-rock geochemical and Sr-Nd-Pb-O isotope data from the Kemerlikdağı, Aydıntepe and Pelitli plutons and mafic microgranular enclaves (MMEs) to constrain their parental melt source(s) and evolutionary processes. U-Pb SHRIMP zircon dating yielded crystallization ages between 45 and 44 Ma for the studied plutons and their MMEs. The plutons range from gabbro to granite and have I-type, medium to high-K calc-alkaline, and metaluminous to slightly peraluminous characteristics. On the primitive mantle-normalized multi-trace-element variations, the plutons and their MMEs are characterized by significant enrichment in LILE/HFSE. Chondrite-normalized REE patterns of the plutons and their MMEs are close to each other and show moderate enrichment with variable negative Eu anomalies. The studied plutons have fairly homogeneous isotope composition (87Sr/86Sr(i) = 0.70502 to 0.70560; εNd(i) = +0.9 to – 1.4; δ18O = +5.0 to +8.7‰, εHf(i) = – 2.2 to +13.5). The MMEs show medium to high-K calc-alkaline and metaluminous character. Although the isotope signatures of the MMEs (87Sr/86Sr(i) = 0.70508 to 0.70542; εNd(i) = +0.9 to −1.1; δ18O = +5.8 to +8.0, εHf(i) = +4.3 to +10.4) are very similar to those of the host rocks. Fractionation of plagioclase, amphibole, pyroxene and Fe-Ti oxides played an important role in the evolution of the plutons. The isotopic composition of the studied plutons and MMEs are similar to I-type plutons derived from mantle sources. The MMEs show incomplete magma mixing/mingling, representing small bodies of mafic parental magma. The parental magma(s) of the studied plutons were generated from the enriched lithospheric mantle and then modified by fractional crystallisation, and lesser assimilation and mixing/mingling in the crustal magma chambers.