First report of the in vitro antileishmanial properties of extremophile plants from the Algarve Coast

This work reports for the first time the in vitro anti Leishmania infantum activity of acetone and dichloromethane (DCM) extracts from 25 extremophile plants from Southern Portugal. DCM extracts from Inula chritmoides and Spergularia rubra were active against axenic promastigotes and intracellular amastigotes, had anti-inflammatory properties on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated macrophages, inhibited acetylcholinesterase and had no haemolytic activity on human erythrocytes. Eleven phenolics were identified by high-performance liquid chromatography with diode-array detection (HPLC-DAD) in I. crithmoides and one phenolic in S. rubra. Isolation and identification of the active molecules is in progress.