Generalized correlation and kernel causality with applications in development economics
New generalized correlation measures of 2012, GMC(Y|X), use Kernel regressions to overcome the linearity of Pearson's correlation coefficients. A new matrix of generalized correlation coefficients is such that when |r*ij| > |r*ji|, it is more likely that the column variable Xj is what Granger called the “instantaneous cause” or what we call “kernel cause” of the row variable Xi. New partial correlations ameliorate confounding. Various examples and simulations support robustness of new causality. We include bootstrap inference, robustness checks based on the dependence between regressor and error, and on the out-of-sample forecasts. Data for 198 countries on nine development variables support growth policy over redistribution and Deaton's criticism of foreign aid. Potential applications include Big Data, since our R code is available in the online supplementary material.