Geographic variation in the spotted-wing drosophila, Drosophila suzukii (Diptera: Drosophilidae), based on mitochondrial DNA sequences

The spotted-wing drosophila (SWD), Drosophila suzukii (Diptera: Drosophilidae), is an economically damaging pest that feeds on most thin-skinned fruits. It was originally native to a few Asian countries, including Korea, but is now found in North America and Europe. In this study, we sequenced portions of the mitochondrial (mt) COI and ND4 genes from a total of 195 individuals collected mainly from Korea. We then combined GenBank-registered COI sequences from all ancestral-range and introduced-range populations with our own COI data to assess the worldwide diversity, divergence, and relatedness of SWD haplotypes. A total of 139 haplotypes were obtained from the concatenated COI and ND4 sequences. Most haplotypes were confined to single localities, but 12 of them were found in more than two localities, and one haplotype (SWDCN61) was found from Korea to Canada. A dataset combining GenBank sequences with our own data identified a total of 94 worldwide COI haplotypes with a maximum sequence divergence (MSD) of 5.433% (32 bp). Although most haplotypes were found in only a single country, a few haplotypes were found commonly in China, Korea, and Japan; these occurred at a higher frequency and were often involved in introductions. A rough estimate of genetic diversity in each country showed higher diversity in ancestral distributional ranges, but the invasion over Asian countries seems to have been substantial because haplotype diversity was only 2.35 to 3.97-fold lower in the U.S.A, Canada, and Italy than that in the populations’ ancestral ranges.