Highlights of human ectopic fascioliasis: a systematic review

Fascioliasis is a tropical zoonotic disease caused by the Fasciola parasite. The adult parasite usually resides in the liver and biliary ducts; however, several cases of ectopic fascioliasis (EF) have been reported. This study is a highlight on EF according to the confirmed case reports. In a setting of systematic review, we found 25 eligible articles containing 26 confirmed cases of EF (any date until 30 November 2018), including abdominal and intestinal EF in six cases, skin and subcutaneous tissues in five cases, eye in four cases, brain and pancreas in three cases, neck and lymph node in two cases, and lung, dorsal spine, and peritoneal cavity in one case, respectively. The result indicates that fascioliasis can have diverse ectopic forms and should be more attended in the endemic regions of fascioliasis in order to distinguish from other endemic diseases.