Identification of MMP-1 and MMP-9 inhibitors from the roots of Eleutherococcus divaricatus, and the PAMPA test
The purpose of this study was the isolation of metalloproteinases MMP-1 and MMP-9 inhibitors from the chloroform extract of the Eleutherococcus divaricatus roots. Using GC-MS, 1H and 13C NMR, HMQC, HMBC, COSY and DEPT, (+)-sesamin has been identified as a new anti-MMP inhibitor. We report for the first time that (+)-sesamin inhibited MMP-1 and MMP-9 activity in 40% and 17%, respectively. The high inhibitory potential has been shown by ursolic acid (90.9% and 89.8% for MMP-1 and MMP-9). In the PAMPA test, the Pe value for sesamin was established as 17.4 × 10− 6 cm/s, that for ursolic acid as 30.0 × 10− 6 cm/s. Verapamil and theophylline were used as a positive and negative control (Pe 42.1 and 2.9 × 10− 6 cm/s). To our best knowledge, no information was available on this activity of sesamin and other compounds. These studies provide a biochemical basis for the regulation of MMP-1 and MMP-9 by E.divaricatus compounds.