Impact of waterlogging on the uptake of arsenic by hyperaccumulator and tolerant plant
A significant proportion of arsenic (As)-contaminated sites are temporarily or permanently under reducing condition, which may affect phytoextraction efficiency using the As-hyperaccumulator Pteris vittata L. In this work, a pot experiment was conducted to investigate the solubility and redox species of As in soil. The uptake of As by two populations of P. vittata and As-tolerant grass Holcus lanatus under different water regimes was examined. Waterlogging decreased the redox potential from 350 to−50 mV, leading to an approximately 40% reduction of As(V) to As(III) and an increased dissolved As concentration by 150%–300%. The changes in the speciation and concentration of As influenced its uptake by plants. A population collected from a temporarily waterlogged riverside in Guangxi province (GX population) had ninefold higher shoot As concentration under the waterlogged condition than that under the non-waterlogged condition, indicating that it preferred taking up As in the form of As(III). By contrast, a population of P. vittata collected from a dry land in Yunnan province (YN population) and H. lanatus demonstrated a preference to As(V). The GX population was an appropriate species for the phytoextraction of waterlogged sites. These results implied the importance of habitat ecology on the extraction efficiency of hyperaccumulators.