Impacts of benzovindiflupyr on the embryonic development of zebrafish (Danio rerio)
Benzovindiflupyr is a broad spectrum succinate dehydrogenase inhibitor fungicide, and information about its risk to aquatic organisms is limited. The present study examined the developmental effects of benzovindiflupyr exposure to zebrafish under static conditions through fish embryo toxicity test. First, zebrafish hatchability and survivability were decreased. Edema, body deformation, and microcephaly were abnormalities observed in embryos. Secondly, in vivo fluorescence analysis showed that benzovindiflupyr induced the reactive oxygen species. Moreover, stress-related oxidative enzyme experiments showed that malondialdehyde, superoxide dismutase, glutathione S-transferase, peroxidase and glutathione level were affected, and gene experiments showed that catalase, glutathione peroxidase 1a, superoxide dismutase 1 and superoxide dismutase 2 gene transcription levels were upregulated. Fourth, succinate dehydrogenase activity and the associated gene transcription level were decreased. Taken together, this study suggested that benzovindiflupyr could induce oxidative stress and decrease succinate dehydrogenase activity of zebrafish and has the potential to affect embryonic development.