Incorporation of in vitro metabolism data and physiologically based pharmacokinetic modeling in a risk assessment for chloroprene
Objective: To develop a physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model for chloroprene in the mouse, rat and human, relying only on in vitro data to estimate tissue metabolism rates and partitioning, and to apply the model to calculate an inhalation unit risk (IUR) for chloroprene.
Materials and methods: Female B6C3F1 mice were the most sensitive species/gender for lung tumors in the 2-year bioassay conducted with chloroprene. The PBPK model included tissue metabolism rate constants for chloroprene estimated from results of in vitro gas uptake studies using liver and lung microsomes. To assess the validity of the PBPK model, a 6-hr, nose-only chloroprene inhalation study was conducted with female B6C3F1 mice in which both chloroprene blood concentrations and ventilation rates were measured. The PBPK model was then used to predict dose measures – amounts of chloroprene metabolized in lungs per unit time – in mice and humans.
Results: The mouse PBPK model accurately predicted in vivo pharmacokinetic data from the 6-hr, nose-only chloroprene inhalation study. The PBPK model was used to conduct a cancer risk assessment based on metabolism of chloroprene to reactive epoxides in the lung, the target tissue in mice. The IUR was over100-fold lower than the IUR from the EPA Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS), which was based on inhaled chloroprene concentration. The different result from the PBPK model risk assessment arises from use of the more relevant tissue dose metric, amount metabolized, rather than inhaled concentration
Discussion and conclusions: The revised chloroprene PBPK model is based on the best available science, including new test animal in vivo validation, updated literature review and a Markov-Chain Monte Carlo analysis to assess parameter uncertainty. Relying on both mouse and human metabolism data also provides an important advancement in the use of quantitative in vitro to in vivo extrapolation (QIVIVE). Inclusion of the best available science is especially important when deriving a toxicity value based on species extrapolation for the potential carcinogenicity of a reactive metabolite.