Levels of selected urinary metabolites of volatile organic compounds in a representative sample of US adolescents
Data from National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey for the years 2011–2012 were used to evaluate the variability in the observed levels of 20 urinary metabolites of 16 parent volatile organic compounds by age, gender, race/ethnicity, and smoking status for adolescents aged 12–19 years. Smokers were found to have statistically significantly higher adjusted levels than nonsmokers for selected urinary metabolites of acrylonitrile (p < 0.05) and 1,3-butadiene (p < 0.05). For example, for N-Acetyl-S-(2-cyanoethyl)-L-cysteine, the adjusted levels for smokers were 29.2 ng/mL and 2.0 ng/mL for nonsmokers (p < 0.05). Females were found to have higher adjusted levels of selected metabolites of crotonaldehyde (p < 0.05), cyanide (p < 0.05), and tetrachloroethylene (p < 0.05) than males. For example, the adjusted levels of 2-Aminothiazoline-4-carboxylic acid or ATCA were 218.9 and 108.6 ng/mL for females and males, respectively (p < 0.05). Non-Hispanic whites (NHW) had higher adjusted levels than non-Hispanic blacks (NHB) for selected metabolites of N,N-dimethylformamide (p < 0.05) and ethylbenzene, styrene (p < 0.05). For example, for N-Acetyl-S-(N-methylcarbamoyl)-L-cysteine or AMCC, the adjusted levels for NHW and NHB were 122.7 and 80.2 ng/mL, respectively (p < 0.05). The reverse was true for selected metabolites of carbon-disulfide and tetrachloroethylene. For example, for N-Acetyl-S-(benzyl)-L-cysteine or BMA, adjusted levels for NHW and NHB were 6.7 and 10.3 ng/mL, respectively (p < 0.05).