Mapping and ablation procedures for the treatment of ventricular tachycardia
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Introduction: Ventricular tachycardia (VT) may occur in the presence or absence of structural heart disease. Given that the management of VT hinges on the presence of symptoms and risk of sudden cardiac death (SCD), the main treatment goals are elimination of symptoms (including frequent implantable cardioverter defibrillator [ICD] therapies) and prevention of SCD. Unfortunately, medical management is suboptimal in a significant proportion of patients. As such, ablative therapy plays a prominent role in the treatment of ventricular tachycardia.
Areas covered: In this review, we will discuss various VT disorders that are encountered in patients with and without structural heart disease. Further, we will highlight salient features regarding mapping and ablation of the various VT syndromes. Finally, we will discuss what lies on the horizon for VT ablation.
Expert commentary: Meticulous mapping should aim to find the region that is most likely to be successful and least likely to result in a complication. Although recognition of the various mechanisms of VT, familiarity with different methods to mapping and ablation, and awareness of potential limitations of current approaches is critical, a thorough understanding of the fundamental principles and nuances of each facet within EP is required to ensure optimal outcomes for our patients.