Novel diversity in mitochondrial genomes of deep-sea Pennatulacea (Cnidaria: Anthozoa: Octocorallia)

We present the first documented complete mitogenomes of deep-sea Pennatulacea, representing nine genera and eight families. These include one species each of the deep-sea genera Funiculina, Halipteris, Protoptilum and Distichoptilum, four species each of Umbellula and Pennatula, three species of Kophobelemnon and two species of Anthoptilum, as well as one species of the epi- and mesobenthic genus Virgularia. Seventeen circular genomes ranged from 18,513 bp (Halipteris cf. finmarchica) to 19,171 bp (Distichoptilum gracile) and contained all genes standard to octocoral mitochondrial genomes (14 protein-coding genes, two ribosomal RNA genes and one transfer RNA). We found at least three different gene orders in Pennatulacea: the ancestral gene order, the gene order found in bamboo corals (Family Isididae), and a novel gene order. The mitogenome of one species of Umbellula has a bipartite genome (∼13 kbp and ∼5 kbp), with good evidence that both parts are circular.