Oral intake of added titanium dioxide and its nanofraction from food products, food supplements and toothpaste by the Dutch population

<p>Titanium dioxide (TiO<sub>2</sub>) is commonly applied to enhance the white colour and brightness of food products. TiO<sub>2</sub> is also used as white pigment in other products such as toothpaste. A small fraction of the pigment is known to be present as nanoparticles (NPs). Recent studies with TiO<sub>2</sub> NPs indicate that these particles can have toxic effects. In this paper, we aimed to estimate the oral intake of TiO<sub>2</sub> and its NPs from food, food supplements and toothpaste in the Dutch population aged 2 to over 70 years by combining data on food consumption and supplement intake with concentrations of Ti and TiO<sub>2</sub> NPs in food products and supplements. For children aged 2–6 years, additional intake via ingestion of toothpaste was estimated. The mean long-term intake to TiO<sub>2</sub> ranges from 0.06 mg/kg bw/day in elderly (70+), 0.17 mg/kg bw/day for 7–69-year-old people, to 0.67 mg/kg bw/day in children (2–6 year old). The estimated mean intake of TiO<sub>2</sub> NPs ranges from 0.19 μg/kg bw/day in elderly, 0.55 μg/kg bw/day for 7–69-year-old people, to 2.16 μg/kg bw/day in young children. Ninety-fifth percentile (P95) values are 0.74, 1.61 and 4.16 μg/kg bw/day, respectively. The products contributing most to the TiO<sub>2</sub> intake are toothpaste (in young children only), candy, coffee creamer, fine bakery wares and sauces. In a separate publication, the results are used to evaluate whether the presence of TiO<sub>2</sub> NPs in these products can pose a human health risk.</p>