Perioperative point of care platelet function testing and postoperative blood loss in high-risk cardiac surgery patients
Postoperative coagulopathic bleeding is common in cardiac surgery and associated with increased morbidity and mortality. Platelet function is affected by multiple factors, including patient and procedural characteristics. Point-of-care (POC) multiple electrode aggregometry (MEA) can rapidly detect and quantify platelet dysfunction and could contribute to optimal patient blood management.
In patients undergoing CABG and heart valve surgery platelet function was assessed using POC MEA at four different perioperative timepoints in response to stimulation with four specific receptor agonists (ADP, AA, COL, TRAP). Postoperative bleeding was recorded during 24 h after surgery. Regression analyses were performed to establish associations between perioperative platelet function and postoperative blood loss.
Ninety-nine patients were included in the study. Fifty-nine patients (60%) were on antiplatelet therapy (APT) at time of surgery. ADP- and AA-induced platelet aggregation declined during CPB and after decannulation from CPB, with a maximum decrease of 55% for ADP (35 vs. 77 AU at baseline; P < 0.001) and 78% for ASPI (14 vs. 64 AU at baseline; P < 0.001). A linear relationship was present between ADP-induced platelet aggregometry at baseline and postoperative blood loss (r = −0.249; P = 0.015). In aspirin users, the maximum decline in platelet function between baseline and CPB decannulation was related to postoperative blood loss (r = 0.308; P = 0.037). In multivariate analysis, a reduced ADP platelet function prior to surgery remained associated with postoperative blood loss (r = −0.239; P = 0.012).
Reduced ADP-induced platelet aggregation at baseline is associated with increased postoperative blood loss in high-risk cardiac surgery patients.