Preparation, evaluation and metabolites study in rats of novel amentoflavone-loaded TPGS/soluplus mixed nanomicelles

Amentoflavone (AMF) is a kind of biflavonoids existing in Ginkgo biloba leaves. It has many biological activities, such as antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-bacterial, antiviral, hypoglycemic, anti-tumor and inducing apoptosis. However, its solubility and bioavailability are poor and there are a few studies on it in vivo. In this study, to improve its solubility and bioavailability, the nanomicelles were prepared with TPGS and soluplus as carriers for the first time. The particle size, Zeta potential, encapsulation efficiency, drug loading, stability, cytotoxicity, cellular uptake, and metabolites in rats were studied. Cytotoxicity, cellular uptake, and metabolites in rats of AMF-loaded TPGS/soluplus mixed micelles were compared with those of AMF. As a result, AMF-loaded TPGS/soluplus mixed micelles with a particle size of 67.33 ± 2.01 nm and Zeta potential of −0.84133 ± 0.041405 mV were successfully prepared. The encapsulation efficiency and drug loading of the mixed nanomicelles were 99.18 ± 0.76% and 2.47 ± 0.01%, respectively. The physical and chemical properties of the mixed micelles were stable within 60 d, and the cytotoxicity of the mixed micelles was much greater than that of AMF monomers. Thirty-four kinds of metabolites of AMF were identified in rats. The metabolites were mainly distributed in rat feces. No metabolites were detected in bile and plasma. 14 kinds of metabolites of the mixed micelles in rats were detected, including 11 in feces, 6 in urine, and 3 in plasma, which indicated that the bioavailability of AMF has been improved. And the toxicity to cancer cells was enhanced, which laid a foundation for the development of new drugs.