Protective effects of extracts of lichen Dirinaria consimilis (Stirton) D.D. Awasthi in bifenthrin- and diazinon-induced oxidative stress in rat erythrocytes in vitro
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The intoxication of insecticides such as bifenthrin and diazinon has been reported to generate free radicals, and thereby alter the antioxidant defense system in erythrocytes. The present study is aimed to investigate the protective effects of acetone (DA) and methanolic (DM) extracts of lichen Dirinaria consimilis against bifenthrin and diazinon toxicity in rats’ erythrocytes in vitro. Rats’ erythrocytes were exposed to bifenthrin and diazinon, individually and also in combination with DA or DM at 1 ppm for 3 h at 37 ˚C. By using spectrophotometric methods, all the samples were estimated for changes in hemoglobin (Hb) concentration, malondialdehyde (MDA) levels, and enzyme [Superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione S-transferases (GST)] activities. The outcomes showed that both the insecticides were highly toxic to rats’ erythrocytes. Among all groups, both the insecticides and DA exposed groups showed very low levels of MDA content, and GST activity in rats’ erythrocytes, when compared to the control. Besides, DA groups pretreated with both insecticides showed significant improvement of total Hb concentration, SOD, and CAT activities, with respect to the control. Hence, the present results indicate that the extracts of D. consimilis act as an antioxidant agent that reduces oxidative stress burden in insecticides toxicity.