Receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE)-mediated cytotoxicity of 3-hydroxypyridinium derivatives

Advanced glycation end products (AGEs) formed from glyceraldehyde (Gcer) and glycolaldehyde (Gcol) are involved in the pathogenesis of diabetic complications, via interactions with a receptor for AGEs (RAGE). In this study, we aimed to elucidate the RAGE-binding structure in Gcer and Gcol-derived AGEs and identify the minimal moiety recognized by RAGE. Among Gcer and Gcol-derived AGEs, GLAP (glyceraldehyde-derived pyridinium) and GA-pyridine elicited toxicity in PC12 neuronal cells. The toxic effects of GLAP and GA-pyridine were suppressed in the presence of anti-RAGE antibody or the soluble form of RAGE protein. Furthermore, the cytotoxicity test using GLAP analog compounds indicated that the 3-hydroxypyridinium (3-HP) structure is sufficient for RAGE-dependent toxicity. Surface plasmon resonance analysis showed that 3-HP derivatives directly interact with RAGE. These results indicate that GLAP and GA-pyridine are RAGE-binding epitopes, and that 3-HP, a common moiety of GLAP and GA-pyridine, is essential for the interaction with RAGE.

GLAP and GA-pyridine are RAGE-binding AGEs, and the 3-hydroxypyridinium moiety is sufficient for the interaction with RAGE.