Regulation of osteoclast differentiation by static magnetic fields

Static magnetic field (SMF) modulates bone metabolism, but little research is concerned with the effects of SMF on osteoclast. Our previous studies show that osteogenic differentiation is strongly correlated with magnetic strength from hypo (500 nT), weak (geomagnetic field, GMF), moderate (0.2 T) to high (16 T) SMFs. We speculated that the intensity that had positive (16 T) or negative (500 nT and 0.2 T) effects on osteoblast differentiation would inversely influence osteoclast differentiation. To answer this question, we examined the profound effects of SMFs on osteoclast differentiation from pre-osteoclast Raw264.7 cells. Here, we demonstrated that 500 nT and 0.2 T SMFs promoted osteoclast differentiation, formation and resorption, while 16 T had an inhibitory effect. Almost all the osteoclastogenic genes were highly expressed under 500 nT and 0.2 T, including RANK, matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP9), V-ATPase, carbonic anhydrase II (Car2) and cathepsin K (CTSK), whereas they were decreased under 16 T. In addition, 16 T disrupted actin formation with remarkably decreased integrin β3 expression. Collectively, these results indicate that osteoclast differentiation could be regulated by altering the intensity of SMF, which is just contrary to that on osteoblast differentiation. Therefore, studies of SMF effects could reveal some parameters that could be used as a physical therapy for various bone disorders.