Structured water chains in external electric fields
We study the structural, energetic and electronic properties of the structured water chain clusters within the density functional theory. We refer the structured water chains to those water clusters that have specific geometric patterns stretched along one direction. External electric field required to keep the structures open chain, thereby preventing them to form closed structures, is applied along the length of the chain. The structures are essentially periodic with basic repeating unit consisting of the corner- or edge-sharing 4-, 5- or 6-membered ring water clusters. Our calculations underscore the possible existence of such structured water clusters in the electrostatic environments, which we simulate in its simplicity employing a dipolar, uniform and static electric field. Analysis reveals that the 5-membered ring water chain clusters, i.e. the pentamer chain clusters have the lowest average dipole moment per water molecule while the threshold field, that marks the onset of the field-induced closure of the HOMO (highest occupied molecular orbital)-LUMO (lowest unoccupied molecular orbital) energy gap, is highest, followed by that for the tetramer and hexamer chains. The results suggest that the pentamer chains are the most stable clusters over a wide range of electric fields.