The effect of dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor and glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonist in gestational diabetes mellitus: a systematic review

Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is the most common complication in pregnancy and affects 13% pregnant women around the world. GDM has both short-term and long-term negative effect on mother and offspring. Dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitor and glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonist (GLP-1 Ra) have shown many extra-benefits in diabetes patients, and may be a promising choice to GDM. Here, we conducted a systematic review of randomized controlled trials to investigate the effect of DPP-4 inhibitor and GLP-1 Ra in GDM. This project was conducted based on the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta Analyses (PRISMA) statement. We searched PubMed, EMBASE and Cochrane library up to November 8 2019 for eligible trials. A total of 982 records were identified and 4 trials (516 participants) met the criteria in the end. The results suggested that DPP-4 inhibitor and GLP-1 Ra can reduce the rate of developing postpartum diabetes, help to normalization of blood glucose and improve insulin resistance and β-cell function. Although the treatments showed beneficial effects in GDM patients, but the present data could not prove it use in GDM. Further clinical trials will be needed.