The multiple effects of borders on metropolitan functions in Europe
This paper examines the effects of borders on the performance of metropolitan areas in Europe. An innovative multidimensional conceptualization of border effects into four factors (separation, contact, differentiation and affirmation) is elaborated on and empirically tested. Estimation results confirm the ambivalent effects of the differentiation factor: economic differentials display positive effects, while cultural differences have negative effects on metropolitan performance. For the other factors, the estimations are of the expected sign, but their signal is weak and calls for further research. Ultimately, this exploratory analysis represents a promising attempt to disentangle the intrinsic dimensions of borders and consider their ambivalent effects.