Thermodynamic parameters of amitriptyline hydrochloride–additives at cloud point: effects of the ethanol–water mixed media
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Addition of organic solvents is known to change the properties of amphiphiles through modification of bulk phase. Amitriptyline hydrochloride (AMT) is a tricyclic amphiphilic drug which is usually used as an antidepressant. In drug delivery, the cloud point (CP) of the drug is an important parameter. This article discusses the effects of ethanol–water (EtOH–WR) compositions on the energetic parameters, such as changes in Gibbs energy of clouding (ΔsG0), enthalpy of clouding (ΔsH0), and entropy of clouding (TΔsS0) of AMT-additive systems. Monovalent alkali halide salts, cationic conventional surfactants, and gemini surfactants were used as additives in the EtOH–WR mixed media whose compositions were varied between 0 and 15% (w/w). The ΔsG0 values are positive for all the additives and the values decrease with the rise in mole fractions of the additives. The ΔsH0 and TΔsS0 were noted to be positive except for KF in 15% EtOH–WR mixed media.