Ultrastructure and molecular phylogenetic position of a new marine sand-dwelling dinoflagellate from British Columbia, Canada: Pseudadenoides polypyrenoides sp. nov. (Dinophyceae)

Two monospecific genera of marine benthic dinoflagellates, Adenoides and Pseudadenoides, have unusual thecal tabulation patterns (lack of cingular plates in the former; and no precingular plates and a complete posterior intercalary plate series in the latter) and are thus difficult to place within a phylogenetic framework. Although both genera share morphological similarities, they have not formed sister taxa in previous molecular phylogenetic analyses. We discovered and characterized a new species of Pseudadenoides, P. polypyrenoides sp. nov., at both the ultrastructural and molecular phylogenetic levels. Molecular phylogenetic analyses of SSU and LSU rDNA sequences demonstrated a close relationship between P. polypyrenoides sp. nov. and Pseudadenoides kofoidii, and Adenoides and Pseudadenoides formed sister taxa in phylogenetic trees inferred from LSU rDNA sequences. Comparisons of morphological traits, such as the apical pore complex (APC), demonstrated similarities between Adenoides, Pseudadenoides and several planktonic genera (e.g. Heterocapsa, Azadinium and Amphidoma). Molecular phylogenetic analyses of SSU and LSU rDNA sequences also demonstrated an undescribed species within Adenoides.