Using Response Times for Joint Modeling of Response and Omission Behavior

For adequate modeling of missing responses, a thorough understanding of the nonresponse mechanisms is vital. As a large number of major testing programs are in the process or already have been moving to computer-based assessment, a rich body of additional data on examinee behavior becomes easily accessible. These additional data may contain valuable information on the processes associated with nonresponse. Bringing together research on item omissions with approaches for modeling response time data, we propose a framework for simultaneously modeling response behavior and omission behavior utilizing timing information for both. As such, the proposed model allows (a) to gain a deeper understanding of response and nonresponse behavior in general and, in particular, of the processes underlying item omissions in LSAs, (b) to model the processes determining the time examinees require to generate a response or to omit an item, and (c) to account for nonignorable item omissions. Parameter recovery of the proposed model is studied within a simulation study. An illustration of the model by means of an application to real data is provided.