ZnO Nanoparticles as an Efficient, Heterogeneous, Reusable, and Ecofriendly Catalyst for One-Pot, Three-Component Synthesis of 3,4-Dihydropyrimidin-2(1H)-(thio)one Derivatives in Water

An extremely efficient heterogeneous protocol is reported for the one-pot, three-component synthesis of a series of dihydropyrimidinones (DHPMs) in the presence of ZnO nanoparticles in water as a green solvent. The ZnO nanoparticles exhibited excellent catalytic activity and the proposed methodology is capable of providing the desired products in good yields (65–94%) within short reaction times. After the reaction course, ZnO nanoparticles can be recycled and reused without any apparent loss of activity, which makes this ecofriendly process cost-effective.