In vitro human colonic fermentation of indigestible fraction isolated from lunch menus: impact on the gut metabolites and antioxidant capacity
The indigestible fraction (IF) isolated from three lunch menus: Modified Mexican Lunch (MM-L), Traditional Mexican Lunch (TM-L) and Alternative Mexican Lunch (AM-L), was studied in terms of antioxidant capacity (AOX) and metabolites produced through fermentation by human intestinal microbiota. IFs were isolated after withstanding in vitro gastrointestinal digestion and total soluble polyphenols (TSP), condensed tannins (CT), hydrolysable polyphenols (HP) and AOX (DPPH, FRAP) were evaluated. AOX, pH and bacterial metabolites profile changes were also monitored during in vitro colonic fermentation. Lunch menus showed differences in IF, TSP, CT and FRAP values (p<.05). TM-L had the highest TSP and CT contents (0.84 and 1.89 g/100 g DW, respectively). Changes in pH and AOX during fermentation were time-dependent and substrate-dependent (p<.05). Butyric acid production was not significantly modified by the IFs (p>.05). Fifty-seven microbiota-produced volatile compounds were detected by SPME-GC–MS. This study shows the potential effects of food habits on bacterial metabolite production.