Effect of genetic and environmental factors on protein biomarkers for common non-communicable disease and use of personally normalized plasma protein profiles (PNPPP)
Datasets usually provide raw data for analysis. This raw data often comes in spreadsheet form, but can be any collection of data, on which analysis can be performed.
Objective: To study the impact of genetic and lifestyle factors on protein biomarkers and develop personally normalized plasma protein profiles (PNPPP) controlling for non-disease-related variance.
Materials and methods: Proximity extension assays were used to measure 145 proteins in 632 controls and 344 cases with non-communicable diseases.
Results: Genetic and lifestyle factors explained 20–88% of the variation in healthy controls. Adjusting for these factors reduced the number of candidate biomarkers by 63%.
Conclusion: PNPPP efficiently controls for non-disease-related variance, allowing both for efficient discovery of novel biomarkers and for covariate-independent linear cut-offs suitable for clinical use.