GLIPR2 is a negative regulator of autophagy and the BECN1-ATG14-containing phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase complex
A key mediator of macroautophagy/autophagy induction is the class III phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase complex I (PtdIns3K-C1) consisting of PIK3C3/VPS34, PIK3R4/VPS15, BECN1, and ATG14. Although several proteins are known to enhance or decrease PtdIns3K-C1 activity, our understanding of the molecular regulation of PtdIns3K-C1 is still incomplete. Previously, we identified a Golgi-associated protein, GLIPR2, in a screen for proteins that interact with amino acids 267–284 of BECN1, a region of BECN1 sufficient to induce autophagy when fused to a cell penetrating leader sequence. In this study, we used CRISPR-Cas9-mediated depletion of GLIPR2 in cells and mice to investigate the role of GLIPR2 in the regulation of autophagy and PtdIns3K-C1 activity. Depletion of GLIPR2 in HeLa cells increased autelophagic flux and generation of phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate (PtdIns3P). GLIPR2 knockout resulted in less compact Golgi structures, which was also observed in autophagy-inducing conditions such as amino acid starvation or Tat-BECN1 peptide treatment. Importantly, the binding of GLIPR2 to purified PtdIns3K-C1 inhibited the in vitro lipid kinase activity of PtdIns3K-C1. Moreover, the tissues of glipr2 knockout mice had increased basal autophagic flux as well as increased recruitment of the PtdIns3P-binding protein, WIPI2. Taken together, our findings demonstrate that GLIPR2 is a negative regulator of PtdIns3K-C1 activity and basal autophagy.
Abbreviations: ATG14: autophagy related 14; Baf A1: bafilomycin A1; BARA: β-α repeated, autophagy-specific; CQ: chloroquine; GFP: green fluorescent protein; GLIPR2: GLI pathogenesis related 2; HBSS: Hanks’ balanced salt solution; KO: knockout; MAP1LC3/LC3: microtubule associated protein 1 light chain 3; PBS: phosphate-buffered saline; PtdIns3K-C1: phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase complex I; PtdIns3P: phosphatidylinositol-3-phosphate; SEM: standard error of the mean; WIPI2: WD repeat domain, phosphoinositide interacting 2