Hyperosmolar therapies for neurological deterioration in mild and moderate traumatic brain injury: A scoping review
To explore the available evidence on hyperosmolar therapies(HT) in mild and moderate traumatic brain injury(TBI) and to evaluate the effects on outcomes.
A scoping review was conducted according to the Joanna Briggs Institute methodology. Inclusion criteria: (a)randomized controlled trials(RCTs), prospective and retrospective cohort studies and case-control studies; (b)all-ages mild and moderate TBIs; (c)HT administration; (d)functional outcomes recorded; (e)comparator group.
From 4424 records, only 3 respected the inclusion criteria. In a retrospective cohort study of adult moderate TBIs, the Glasgow Coma Scale(GCS) remained the same at 48 hours in those treated with hypertonic saline(HTS) while it worsened in the non-treated. A trend toward increased pulmonary infections and length of stay was found. In an RCT of adult severe and moderate TBIs, moderate TBIs treated with HTS showed a trend toward better secondary outcomes than standard care alone, with similar odds of adverse effects. An RCT enrolling children with mild TBI found a significant improvement in concussive pain immediately after HTS administration and after 2–3 days. No adverse events occurred.
A gap in the literature about HTs’ role in mild and moderate TBI was found. Some benefits may exist with limited side effects and further studies are desirable.