Antibody response in patients with autoimmune inflammatory rheumatic disease after pneumococcal polysaccharide prime vaccination or revaccination
The aim of the study was to assess the pneumococcal antibody response in autoimmune inflammatory rheumatic disease (AIIRD) patients receiving 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (PPV23) as a prime vaccination or revaccination.
Antibodies to 12 serotypes occurring in the commonly applied pneumococcal vaccines in Denmark were measured in AIIRD patients receiving biological disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drug (bDMARD) treatment for rheumatoid arthritis, spondyloarthritis, or psoriatic arthritis. Patients with a non-protective level of pneumococcal antibodies (geometric mean pneumococcal antibody level < 1 μg/mL) were invited to receive vaccination with PPV23 followed by control of antibody titre 3 months later.
In total, 224 (74%) of 301 patients were included in the analyses, of whom 126 patients had previously received PPV23 vaccination. Post-vaccination antibody measurement revealed that only 80 patients (36%) achieved a protective level of antibodies. In a multivariable logistic regression analysis, significantly more patients without a previous PPV23 vaccination history achieved a protective antibody level compared with patients with a history of PPV23 vaccination less than 5 years ago (p = 0.005). This difference was not seen when comparing the former group with patients vaccinated 5 years ago or more. Methotrexate (MTX) treatment at the time of vaccination was associated with a non-protective antibody level (p < 0.001).
Only 36% of patients with a non-protective antibody level achieved a protective level in response to pneumococcal vaccination. Pneumococcal vaccination within the last 5 years and MTX treatment at the time of vaccination were independently associated with a poor antibody response.