Change in helmet use behavior enforced by CCTV cameras with automatic helmet use detection system on an urban arterial road

Objective: Many developing countries experience a high death toll among motorcycle users (both drivers and passengers), primarily due to a relatively low rate of helmet use resulting from ineffective helmet law enforcement. The objectives of this study are to explore the change in helmet use behavior due to helmet use enforcement by closed-circuit television (CCTV) camera technology with an automatic helmet use detection system and to identify the factors associated with helmet use along an urban arterial road in the city of Khon Kaen, Thailand.

Methods: Data collection was carried out on 49,128 samples by video cameras installed at 5 signalized intersections during 2 periods, namely, before and during the CCTV camera enforcement. The study applied logistic regression analysis to determine factors associated with helmet use and to compare the ratio of helmet use for each variable according to the odds ratio.

Results: The study found that CCTV camera enforcement could increase helmet usage at all study intersections by 5.3%. The results imply that 4 factors, including riding status, number of passengers, day of week, and traffic conditions, significantly affected helmet use both before and during the CCTV camera enforcement. Remarkably, 2 more variables, age and police inspection, significantly affected helmet use during the CCTV camera enforcement period.

Conclusions: This study confirms that CCTV camera enforcement can be an important driving force for changing helmet use behavior, particularly for child passengers. Moreover, CCTV camera enforcement can support enforcement by extending coverage to a 24-h period and to intersections without police inspection.